Exploring the history behind the Walls of Mdina Old City


The Walls of Mdina Old City in Malta are a testament to the rich history and cultural heritage of the island nation. This ancient fortified city, also known as the “Silent City,” has stood for centuries and has witnessed the rise and fall of empires, the passage of time, and the evolution of architecture and urban planning. In this article, we will explore the fascinating history behind the Walls of Mdina Old City, delving into its origins, significance, and the historical sites that can be found within its walls.

The Origins of Mdina Old City

Mdina Old City traces its origins back to ancient times, with evidence of human habitation dating back to at least 4000 BC. The city’s strategic location on a hilltop in the center of Malta made it an ideal site for settlement, providing a vantage point for defense and control over the surrounding area.

The Phoenicians, who were among the first civilizations to establish a presence in Malta, recognized the strategic importance of the location and established a settlement on the site. Over the centuries, Mdina Old City was ruled by various powers, including the Romans, Byzantines, Arabs, Normans, and the Knights of Malta.

The Construction of the Walls

The construction of the Walls of Mdina Old City began during the Arab period in the 9th century. The walls were built to fortify the city and protect it from invasions and sieges. The walls were constructed using locally sourced limestone, a characteristic feature of Maltese architecture.

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The walls were reinforced and expanded over the centuries, particularly during the rule of the Knights of Malta in the 16th century. The Knights recognized the strategic importance of Mdina Old City and invested heavily in fortifications, turning it into a formidable stronghold.

Significance of the Walls

The Walls of Mdina Old City played a crucial role in the defense of Malta throughout its history. The city’s strategic location and fortified walls made it a difficult target for invaders, providing a safe haven for its inhabitants during times of conflict.

The walls also served as a symbol of power and prestige, showcasing the wealth and influence of the ruling powers. The grandeur and architectural beauty of the walls reflected the importance of Mdina Old City as the capital of Malta during various periods in history.

Historical Sites within the Walls

Within the Walls of Mdina Old City, visitors can explore a wealth of historical sites that offer a glimpse into the city’s past. Here are some notable sites worth visiting:

  • St. Paul’s Cathedral: This magnificent cathedral is one of the most iconic landmarks in Mdina Old City. Built in the 17th century, it is a masterpiece of Baroque architecture and houses stunning works of art.
  • Vilhena Palace: Constructed in the 18th century, Vilhena Palace is a prime example of French Baroque architecture. Today, it serves as the National Museum of Natural History.
  • Palazzo Falson: This medieval palace is a hidden gem within Mdina Old City. It houses a museum showcasing the private collection of its former owner, Olof Gollcher.
  • St. Agatha’s Chapel: This small chapel is known for its beautiful frescoes and is a place of worship for the local community.
  • Bastion Square: Located at the main entrance of Mdina Old City, Bastion Square offers panoramic views of the surrounding countryside and the nearby town of Rabat.
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These are just a few examples of the historical sites that can be found within the Walls of Mdina Old City. Exploring the narrow streets and hidden corners of the city will reveal many more architectural gems and historical treasures.

Preserving the Walls

Preserving the Walls of Mdina Old City is of utmost importance to ensure that future generations can continue to appreciate and learn from this rich cultural heritage. Efforts have been made to restore and maintain the walls, with ongoing conservation projects and regular inspections to monitor their condition.

The walls are not only a tourist attraction but also a living part of the city, with residents still residing within their confines. Balancing the needs of modern life with the preservation of historical sites is a delicate task, but one that is essential to maintain the integrity and authenticity of Mdina Old City.


The Walls of Mdina Old City are more than just a physical barrier; they are a testament to the resilience and endurance of the Maltese people throughout history. Exploring the historical sites within the walls offers a unique opportunity to step back in time and immerse oneself in the rich tapestry of Malta’s past.

From the ancient origins of the city to its role as a strategic stronghold and the architectural wonders that can be found within, the Walls of Mdina Old City are a treasure trove of history and culture. As visitors wander through the narrow streets and soak in the atmosphere of this ancient city, they are sure to be captivated by the stories and secrets that the walls have witnessed over the centuries.

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  1. How old are the Walls of Mdina Old City?
    The construction of the walls began in the 9th century during the Arab period, making them over a thousand years old.
  2. What is the significance of Mdina Old City?
    Mdina Old City served as the capital of Malta during various periods in history and played a crucial role in the defense of the island. It is also a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
  3. What are some other historical sites within the Walls of Mdina Old City?
    In addition to St. Paul’s Cathedral, Vilhena Palace, Palazzo Falson, St. Agatha’s Chapel, and Bastion Square, there are many other historical sites to explore, including the Mdina Dungeons and the Mdina Experience.